SPIN Selling: A Complete Guide to Sales Success

SPIN Selling: A Complete Guide to Sales Success

Based on extensive observational research and analysis of sales behaviours, SPIN selling enables salespeople to acquire a deeper understanding of their customers’ needs, build a persuasive case around specific problems and provide effective solutions. Created and developed here at Huthwaite International, SPIN Selling continues to be one of the most iconic and widely used sales methodologies across the globe - crossing cultural boundaries and evolving with changing customer behaviour.

As the creators of SPIN Selling, in this guide, we’ll explain everything you need to know about this timeless approach to sales success.


What is SPIN Selling?

Although customer behaviours have changed over the years and are always evolving, SPIN Selling continues to be the most iconic and revered sales methodology in the world - used by 30% of the top 100 biggest companies in the world (Forbes), as well as smaller organisations who find SPIN equally accessible and supportive for their sales teams.

Over the past four decades, SPIN selling has proven to be the most effective way to improve sales success and deliver bottom line results. But before we get into the specifics of how SPIN selling works, let’s first establish the fundamentals - what SPIN selling actually is, and why it was developed.

SPIN 2019 GAME ON animation

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SPIN is the world’s leading sales methodology, as outlined in Neil Rackham’s groundbreaking book ‘SPIN Selling’ first published in 1988 - reprinted many times and in dozens of languages. Rackham’s SPIN behaviours were developed here at Huthwaite International, following years of in-depth research into what successful salespeople do differently.

What we’ve found is that effective sellers focus on the customer’s buying process, not on their own sales process. The Buying Cycle outlines the key phases that customers go through when deciding whether or not to buy.

Huthwaite International Buying Cycle

Depending upon where customers are in the Buying Cycle, they may or may not volunteer their needs and we might have to uncover them actively, using questions.

The SPIN selling method is built around four types of key sales questions - each fulfilling crucial roles within a sales process:

  • Situation: questions about the customer’s current situation
  • Problem: questions about the customer’s difficulties or dissatisfactions
  • Implication: questions about the consequences or implications of the customer’s problems
  • Need-Payoff: questions that explore the importance to the customer of solving a problem

Essentially, these questions provide a logical framework rather than a rigid sequence allowing salespeople to enhance communication with their prospects, deliver value and close more deals as a result. They steer the conversation away from the salesperson, to focus on customers and their needs.

Crucially, SPIN Selling isn’t simply a technique that you can read about and apply easily alongside other sales tactics as a quick way to win more deals. To be successful with the SPIN sales model requires proper training, application, and most importantly, a commitment to changing your behaviour or the behaviour of your team, for the long term.

Does SPIN Selling work? Scientifica share their story here.

Is SPIN Selling still relevant?

Without a doubt. Although SPIN Selling was created over 30 years ago, its teachings are perhaps more relevant than ever before.

Today, prospects have a lot more choices and a wealth of information at their disposal, which means they are often less willing to engage with salespeople - the stakes are higher to make a positive and lasting impression.

What has changed is that selling as a whole is no longer just about persuading prospects, as buyers today can and will make their own decisions. However, what does influence a buying decision is the salesperson and their behaviour. After all, many products today are commodities - what tips the scale towards a decision is the person selling, and how well they can respond to customer needs and offer value.

This makes the application of SPIN Selling skills integral to sales success - uncovering problems, solving challenges and communicating value right away. SPIN fundamentals are especially important in the absence of face-to-face meetings, when salespeople are selling remotely and need to gather crucial information quickly.

In a world where your prospect could be speaking to multiple salespeople at once, SPIN Selling ensures you’re the one they want to do business with.

But how exactly does SPIN work in the current climate? See what Neil Rackham has to say about the relevancy of SPIN today:

Neil Rackham - Is SPIN Selling still relevant

Read the Full Transcript Here

Video transcription: The SPIN model is about understanding. I suppose the breakthrough with SPIN was it's no longer about persuading customers, people persuade themselves. It's about really understanding them and their needs so they could do a good job of creating value. That hasn't changed, but some other things have changed which make the SPIN model probably more relevant today than it was thirty years ago.

One of those things is that the products have become commodities. So that salespeople are the differentiator. If salespeople are the differentiator then how do they differentiate? They differentiate by really understanding the customer much more deeply than the competition, by being able to create new creative solutions, by being able to bring value and the SPIN model is a very helpful way to do that, but we are in the 21st century and the SPIN model has got to change. Way back when we did the original SPIN research, we found that situation questions, questions about fact, were slightly negatively correlated with success. You could ask too many of them.

Today they're actively positively negatively correlated. That is, you ask a lot of situation questions and the customer become really impatient. They'll say you should have done your homework, you should have known that because a lot of the things that you found out with the SPIN model thirty years ago, you found that face to face with the customer because there was no other way to do it. Today you can research that. You don't have to ask as many situation questions. So situation questions change.

End of transcript.

Why SPIN Selling works: The Science Behind the Method

In the early 1970s, Neil Rackham and his team set out to uncover what really made top salespeople the best. Were they more charismatic? Was it in their genetics?

Out of 35,000 sales calls came the answer, and SPIN Selling was created. The findings of this revolutionary study - the largest of its kind - were very telling. In fact, they dispelled numerous, popular sales practices and myths, with the most important findings being that:

  • All customer needs are different. This seems obvious, however what we mean here is that focusing on the ‘features and benefits’ of a product or a service isn’t going to work unless they are linked to specific customer needs.
  • Closing techniques are actually counterproductive to the sales process. Skilled sellers explore their customer needs in depth, demonstrate their capability to meet those needs and show a clear business case for their solution before they attempt to close the sale.
  • Great salespeople are most definitely made, not born! Customers demand empathy and integrity. Successful salespeople work hard to become considered and skilled professionals that their customers can trust to provide them with great solutions to their challenges.

Most importantly, it isn’t the appearance or charm of salespeople that helps them close deals - but their behaviours.

In observing what top performers said and did within a sales call, the Huthwaite research group pioneered the use of a research tool, now widely known as Behaviour Analysis. By monitoring and observing how top performing salespeople acted, the team found which behaviours were synonymous with successful outcomes in various scenarios.

We call this a Success Model, and at Huthwaite International, we train salespeople to modify their existing behaviour to match it. Our training focuses on the individual components that make certain behaviours successful, and mirrors this through interactive role plays and skills transfer sessions that allow skills to be used in the workplace.

Our SPIN training courses focus on the hard science behind learning soft skills, and you can see why in this video:


This is just an overview of why the SPIN Selling model works based on the findings of the initial study, as well as our ongoing research. Huthwaite International has analysed over 35,000 sales interviews, in 47 countries, and studied 116 factors which may play a role in improving sales performance. As the creators of SPIN selling, ours remains the largest ever investigation into sales success - and the results speak for themselves.

SPIN Selling Huthwaite International authenticity icon

SPIN and the Buying Cycle are proprietary trade marks of Huthwaite International

Each SPIN trainer must be officially licensed and regularly monitored in order to ensure they can combine our unique methodology with a high quality, consistent learning experience.

Learn the science behind SPIN methodology   *  Discover why closing techniques dramatically reduce your chances of sales  success   *  Find out why benefit statements may be creating customer objections   *  Start implementing the four stage questioning framework used by successful  salespeople.

The SPIN sales model defined

The foundation of SPIN selling is based on a flexible questioning model that allows salespeople to gain a 360 view of where customers are in a sales cycle and what they need.

The SPIN sales methodology gives salespeople a structure to work with - a success proven alternative to enthusiastically dominating customer conversations. SPIN ensures that not only is the customer given the opportunity to speak, but that sales people actually listen. This allows them to properly understand and service their customers’ needs.

SPIN selling helps achieve this through 4 key question types.

What are the SPIN selling questions?


Too often, salespeople jump straight into a sales pitch - perhaps because they’re so eager and excited about the products or services they are selling, Situation questions enable you gather crucial information from your prospects to understand their circumstances - whether it’s what their current processes are, or what tools they’re using.

These kinds of questions give crucial context to the sales process, but research shows that effective sellers ask fewer Situation questions because they can often uncover vital information outside of an actual conversation with the customer. This might be as simple as understanding the size of the business by researching on LinkedIn or it might be more complex such as checking competitor websites for case studies to identify the incumbent suppliers and how long they’ve been working with the business.

So better sellers ask fewer Situation questions but focus them better.

Neil Rackham - Situation questions


Used to identify customer difficulties, dissatisfactions and challenges, Problem questions can be used to clarify problems in addition to uncovering them so ’When does the problem happen?’‘or ‘What causes the problem?’ can be followed by ‘Who experiences the problem?’. They set the basis for uncovering and developing needs later on that are so key to creating the need for change.

Our research shows that experienced sellers ask more problem questions than average sellers.


While Problem questions can be used to uncover a customer’s pains and challenges, Implication questions explore their consequences. These kinds of questions help the customer to think through the risks and implications of their problems (the ones you can solve!) so that the case for change becomes more and more attractive. At this point in the process, it’s vital to show value and address consequences your prospect has perhaps not considered.

Questions such as “You say you have a problem with production time, what kind of impact does that have on your supply chain?” can really open up a discussion, and make the prospect think about how they might change and the cost to change. Implication questions are key to ensuring the consequences of NOT changing are too significant to be ignored.


When done effectively, Need-Payoff questions bring all the previous answers you’ve received together. If you’ve asked the right questions, the prospect should be coming to a realisation that they need to change and that change is a viable option but helping them understand that change is imperative is not enough. You now need to develop their perception of value so that your solution is worth the cost and effort of changing.

Need-payoff questions are the used to emphasise the value or importance of a solution to the customer’s problem. You may use phrases like: How useful would it be if you could improve the accuracy of …' 'What sort of savings would X produce…' 'Would Y also help you to achieve X?'

Need-payoff questions can reduce customer objections are an effective way of rehearsing the customer to sell a solution internally.

How does the SPIN model apply to real-life scenarios?

Simply following a formula doesn’t reflect real conversations - especially when it’s increasingly uncommon that an entire sale will happen in one discussion. With longer buying cycles and complex purchasing decisions, it’s more important than ever before that salespeople do their research to determine where their prospect is positioned in the buying cycle.

For example, if a prospect is actively looking at suppliers, this indicates that they are further along in their buying cycle - meaning that more obvious Situation questions are redundant at this stage. Asking these kinds of questions could have a negative effect on your progress, and send your prospect into the arms of another supplier.

This is especially true in the current climate; in the years since SPIN selling was created, we’ve been able to gain crucial information about our customers online, meaning that certain questions don’t need to be asked anymore - such as company size, for example. Understanding the SPIN model and how to apply it to your individual prospects is key to using the methodology to your advantage.

Learn how to assess where your prospect is in their buying cycle in our free download, Developing Sales Effectiveness:

*  Learn how customers’ needs evolve as your sale progresses   *  discover how to quickly identify unresolved customer concerns   *  how to avoid sales concessions caused by early negotiations.

Developing SPIN Selling skills

Unfortunately, sales success isn’t achieved simply by reading the SPIN model, compiling a list of questions and putting them into practice in a single sales call. Skills aren’t learned that way, as Neil Rackham details in the video below.

Neil Rackham - How should sellers apply SPIN Selling questions

Like any other skill, learning to use SPIN Selling techniques well, requires time and effort. SPIN Selling can’t be taught in its entirety through a book, or blog. Being an effective salesperson or team requires more - it’s a behavioural change, that can only be accomplished through proper training and practice.

SPIN Selling training

Since SPIN Selling was created based on scientific analysis into verbal behaviour during actual sales conversations, it follows that the best way to master the skill is through interactive training. As a business, aligning yourself to a sales methodology gives you a competitive advantage, as it allows you to establish routine and rigour within your sales strategy, as well as enhancing the confidence and ability of your salespeople.

SPIN sales training focuses on facilitating lasting positive change in the behaviour of your sales team. Every training programme we undertake aims to change behaviour, change results - Huthwaite’s proven behaviour change model.

SPIN training doesn’t just teach you to ask the right questions, but how to function as a successful salesperson/team in the current climate, including:

  • Identifying new sales opportunities when your sales techniques are outdated, or prospects are no longer responding to your tactics
  • Understanding where and why sales go wrong, and how to measure success to inform future discussions
  • Building the confidence of a sales team that has been dampened by a stream of losses
  • Determining how to approach prospects in times of uncertainty, or where clients aren’t obviously searching for a solution
  • Maintaining a solid sales strategy when your sales team cannot consistently communicate in person - or they’re having to conduct sales virtually.

However, the success of training relies on not only believing in the methodology, but being open and willing to embrace organisational change.

At Huthwaite International, we’ve helped many leading companies change their behaviour through SPIN sales training, tailoring each course to their individual sales challenges and requirements. Even in times of uncertainty, SPIN has proven to be more than worth the investment.

See how a software company achieved a 50% increase in sales with SPIN sales training, and other success stories in our free download SPIN evidence of return on investment.


Learn essential SPIN Selling skills with training from Huthwaite International

As the creators of SPIN Selling, Huthwaite International are certified providers of SPIN sales training, delivering a truly global programme that accounts for cultural and behavioural differences. The scope of our international delivery is vast - managing and implementing training solutions for countless clients, and helping them achieve consistency in teams across the world.

We’ve continued to enhance our courses as the economic and social climate continues to change - offering a virtual SPIN sales course when sales teams can’t gather in a classroom.

Now more than ever, the skills and behaviours taught in our SPIN Selling courses are essential to any teams involved in communicating, selling or negotiating with customers. As the world, and your customers, continue to evolve, it’s crucial that you invest the time and energy in meeting their needs.

The story of our virtual training programmes in 2020


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At Huthwaite International, we develop SPIN training programmes that match your individual sales challenges and requirements - and deliver it at a time and place that suits you. Talk to us about developing your SPIN sales training plan today.

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About the Author
Rachel Massey

Written by Rachel Massey